Cost Effective Application of Phase-Shifting Mask in the Standard Cell Design Flow

Today, advanced semiconductors are being designed and manufactured with features smaller than the wavelength of the light used to pattern them. This is being done to keep up with Moore's Law which has a much steeper rate of change than the wavelength of the available lithography patterning equipment. The widening gap between critical IC feature sizes and the wavelength of available lithographic processing equipment is dictating the adoption of a number of "subwavelength" technologies such as Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Phase-Shifting Masks (PSM), which have been introduced to produce integrated circuits (ICs) with acceptable manufacturing yields. An efficient approach to keep pace with descending feature sizes includes a combination of OPC and PSM techniques.

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