A Tutorial on the Origin and Control of Echo in Telecommunications Systems

In general, the subject of echo in telecommunications systems is considered a specialized field of study. This paper provides a comprehensive examination of voice transmission quality from both a technical and historical perspective. It describes the causes of electrical (hybrid) and acoustic echo, the characteristics of these phenomena, and the impact of echo on voice quality. Several methods used to control echo are discussed, including network loss, echo suppression, echo cancellation, and non-linear processing. In addition, the application of echo cancellation in both traditional and newly emerging telecommunication services is covered.

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